Thursday, September 5, 2019


Several different products and colors. They aren't necessarily intended for these locations, but I wanted to see how they'd look in a (relatively) finished scene. I'll need quite a bit...

T-2-b #2327 working Whiting Street Yard in the early '40s.
Kent Cochrane (probably) photo.

Note the scaffold around the smoke stack, and the hoppers, probably filled with stone from Cooks Quarry just over the border in Plainville. I believe they would have been dropped at Whiting Street to be weighed.

Tuesday, September 3, 2019

Railroad Terminology

On my last post, lajrmdlr asked whether I should have called the tracks to Home Depot "spurs" rather than "sidings."

Those who know me know that I can be particular about utilizing the proper terms where possible. Sill step, running board, single sheathed box car, etc. Interestingly enough, a similar discussion just popped up on the Steam Era Freight Car list.

In the railfan/hobby press I have seen a general use of the word spur to indicate a stub-ended track, and a siding to be a double-ended track. In some cases, they might only be referring to a passing siding. 

So what about "siding" and "spur?" (And should I be using commas when using quotes in this manner? How about I switch to italics instead...)

I don't recall seeing the term spur in any official NH publications, but I seem to recall industrial sidings and similar usage. So I'll take a closer look:

In the 1943 NH Rule Book it defines siding:

Siding.-A track auxiliary to the main track for meeting or passing trains.

That seems pretty definitive. Rule 42 includes the following:

42. Sidings and other tracks to the right of the main track...

So it does differentiate between sidings and other tracks, but no term is given for "other tracks."

In the Employee Timetable (this one is 6/8/47) it does have some notations in the Maximum Engine Permitted. Under Harlem River, Schorsch & Company (engines not permitted beyond frog on siding in lead 132nd St. and Brown Pl). But I don't know the location, so maybe that's the standard definition. And what should I find under New Britain? 

C.L.P track, engines permitted on lead track only. Spur track, engines not permitted.
P&F Corbin Company spur track.

So what do you know, there's spur track. Incidentally, I see bulk track, bulk delivery track, industrial tracks, private track, house track, and station track notated as well. There's even a runaround track noted.

But wait! There's more!

Here's another booklet (from 8/1/27): Instructions to Conductors Regarding Car Reports...also Numbers of Station and Side-Tracks with Distances from Terminals. Incidentally, the terminology matches the NYC in their book List of Industries with Private or Individual Side Tracks. On NH maps I typically see sidetrack (no space).

However, the PRR in Numbers and Names of Stations and Sidings (Form C.T. 1000) which lists all of the, ahem, (industrial) sidings. The instructions also use the term: 

14. When new Individual or Company sidings have been installed... and also throughout the document when referring to industrial sidings.

The Reading Freight Shippers Guide from 1942 also consistently uses the term "private siding."  


So, like so many things it appears that within the industry there isn't a standardized term. However, on the NH it looks like in general, the term siding is not used (often) for tracks other than what we would normally consider a passing siding. Side track, sidetrack, private track, industrial track, and spur are all used in various official publications. They are often referred to by the name of industry as well. So in the prior post I could have simply gone with Home Depot Tracks and for the most part the crew referred to them as the boxcar track and the flat car track.


This ended up being longer than I thought (not that I should be surprised). At some point I might dig into local/way/peddler freights, and I'm working on a longer article/clinic on AAR Standard Box Cars. And don't get me wrong, there isn't anything wrong with using terms that aren't in the official publications of the railroad. Many of the terms (or things like phases of diesel locomotives) have been created to help clarify exactly what we are discussing. And that's a good thing. But in some cases, invented terms have been used and confused with actual terms.

For example, the interim improved dreadnaught end as I've seen noted numerous times in the press. The problem is, it's in reference to a specific end marketed by SREM as the Improved Dreadnaught End. No interim, (although there were several variations dependent upon the height of the car, and further improvements to the design over the years). But the name refers to a specific, trademarked design.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Model Railroading Myths: Switching Time

One of the common truisms I often hear in model railroading, is that a fast clock is problematic for switching heavy layouts, because we switch in 1:1 or "real" time. Although I've disagreed with this assessment in the past, today I got a chance to put it to the test.

I spent the day on Tuesday working the CNZR with my buddy Dale. He's a conductor on the railroad, and I've always wanted to go out on a run with him. I got to do much more than that, throwing the iron, setting and releasing handbrakes, chocking wheels, and connecting the air hoses, among other things. It was great fun (and a lot of work!) to be a "real" railroader for a day. And it also highlighted how much longer it takes to actually switch out cars on the real railroad.

I didn't really take any decent pictures, a couple of short videos, but for the most part just enjoyed the experience instead.

The Griffins line has a single industry - Home Depot. They have two sidings, one holds 9 box cars, and the other 5 flat cars, plus room on the leads for another 8-9 cars if needed. There's also a storage track that will hold 11 cars, and up the line is a runaround that will hold another 11 cars. You can see cars on the storage track below on the left, and note the break between the first flat car, and the four other flat cars. That's crossing for the forklift.

The runaround is about a mile north. So this morning the railroad had:
Runaround - 9 loaded 85-foot center-beam flats (could fit 2, maybe 3 more cars)
Storage - 5 loaded center-beam flats, 4 (might have been 5) loaded box cars.
The sidings were full, but the leads empty.

5 flats were empty and to be pulled, but only 2 of the box cars were ready to go, but they weren't ready to take any new cars today. In addition, the oldest cars must be spotted first (so the inbound cars today won't be spotted for a couple of days). On the boxcar track, they also don't like new cars to be placed in front (at the lead end) of older cars in the back. And they sometimes take several days, even a week or more, to empty the boxcars.

And there were 16 (!) cars at the interchange in Hartford to come up the line.

We went out with two locomotives (A GP-9 and GP-20), and started at Home Depot:
Pulled the 5 flat cars and dropped them on the main.
Pulled the 2 box cars and dropped them on the main.
Moved the 5 flats to the siding.
Moved the box cars to the siding, leaving two of them on the lead.

These 4 moves took between 1 1/2 to 2 hours in real time. In addition to throwing the iron, it involves pulling the wheel chocks, opening a knuckle, coupling up the cars, connecting the air hoses, releasing or setting hand brakes (on three cars minimum), verifying that the other brakes are released when picking up, testing the brakes, along with the paperwork.

For example, to pick up the flat cars, we had to connect to the first car, pull the chocks, hook up the air, and release the brake. We then had to connect to the other cut of flats, connect the air, pull the chocks on the first car, release the handbrakes on three of them, and check that the last car didn't have the brake set, then pull them out. Then reverse the project to set out new cars. On the box cars, every car has chocks, since they need to stay in front of their spotting location.

On a typical model railroad those four moves might take 15-30 minutes. I've seen four moves like this take much less. With a 4x fast clock, that's 1 to 2 hours. We don't model all of the manual steps it takes, and even if we simulate some of them by taking a little time, it's still a pretty good match for a 3 to 4x fast clock.

This makes sense, though. Most of the operating sessions I've run on nearly any layout, a local freight is often expected to take the entire session to run, while the through trains operate following the fast clock schedule. We had to wait for clarification of the work needed for one car, so the whole day was from 9:30 to 4:00.

When watching others switching on a model railroad, I've come to the conclusion that there are two primary reasons why it often takes longer:

  1. Operators that don't know the layout as well as real railroaders that work the job every day;
  2. Trains that aren't blocked like the prototype, requiring more switching moves

Other contributing factors are often:

  1. The track layout and design;
  2. Running too many cars/switching moves

If you've followed the prototype track arrangement, that's not an issue. Traffic can be significant (as today showed). But, we only actually spotted 7 cars, and pulled 7 cars. All of the other moves were just to find someplace to store the loads to be delivered when they are ready for them. For my sessions, I have set my goal to have my industries at about 50% or so to capacity, and switch about 50% of those in a given session. This will vary, and with the right crews excess capacity like this week on the CNZR can be fun.

It also reminds me of Lance Mindheim and other modelers' small layouts. This is a a great example with one industry, two sidings, and two storage locations, but clearly enough work for a single crew of one or two to operate for a couple of hours.

I like to operate while keeping in mind my "men on the ground" and slow down at a turnout to let them off to throw the iron, and pick them up, etc. It adds a fun dimension to the operation, and something more than just "go ahead" or "go back" for the engineer. And I don't anticipate adding too many pauses, since even a 2-5 minute delay on a 4x fast clock isn't really noticeable.

The rest of the day was interesting as well, because of the amount of space to work in Hartford as well. With 7 cars going down, and 16 to bring back (and 1 that was there in error, so really 17 in that cut), we wouldn't be able to run around the new cut. So we pulled a locomotive at the end of the train, and used that as the locomotive on the way back with the cut sandwiched between the two locomotives. Since the delivery included only two flat cars, we were able to squeeze 13 cars on the storage track, and left the two flats with a box car between them on the flat car lead. Because of the blocking, we had to move a cut of box cars to the storage track, then the three cars to the flat car lead, then the remaining cars to the storage track.

So I had a blast operating 1:1 and, as always, learned more about how the railroad actually operates.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

DIY "clamps"

So the area Chris and I worked on has a seam between the masonite used on the helix and the new OSB, and a couple of tracks will need to run across that seam. While it's a location where people won't lean or put any pressure on it, I wanted to stabilize it a bit. These will be simple splice plates glued on since there isn't clearance for anything else. You can see the mockup of the sidings here while I test whether an Atlas crossing will work in this location. There are a number of commercial options, or I may just handlay it.

Since the OSB is thicker than the masonite, I need to glue a couple of spacers first, and then the splice plates. But the problem is the same - there's no way for me to clamp them that far from the other edge of the OSB.

It's not too big an issue, so I started looking for some scraps of wood to stack underneath them, and then thinking about getting some measurements to cut a few pieces. While thinking about it, I was also thinking about cleaning up the basement again, and looked at the pile of track I'd pulled off the west end.

Aha! Instant "clamps." And it works very well because the rail is flexible so I could cut it a little long and keep some pressure on the spacers while being glued in.

For a neater approach to the same thing (which apparently are spring clamps), check out Joe Smith's use of pieces of masonite for another option.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

More progress

Chris came over. How can you tell?

Oops. Wrong picture.

We added the deck inside the helix where tracks for two additional industries and East Main Street will be. East Main will run along the straight edge on the left, and add another grade crossing. The two industries it allows me to add are Miner, Read & Tullock, a grocery wholesaler, and D&K Coal, another small coal industry.

We also addressed what I'll be doing on the inside of the helix at Stanley Works, modifications on the west end, and adding the siding for Skinner Chuck. We also removed almost all of the backdrop. I needed more space where we had coved the corners, and we're coming to the conclusion that even the gray walls (New Haven Silver-Gray) might be all I need for the backdrop. We'll see. It was a very productive day.