Thursday, March 30, 2017

I-1 #1007 at New Britain Station

c1946. Kent Cochrane Photo

So here's another great shot of the passenger service at New Britain. This one is looking eastbound, showing a good portion of the Railroad Arcade. This was a building built by the railroad at the same time as the station. The building housed stores on the first level, and apartments on the second level. Originally, the station platform extended all the way to Main Street, which is behind where Kent is standing when he took this photo.

On the layout, the station and the arcade are just off the layout. I'll be making a model, or at least a facade, that will connect to the layout for the purpose of taking photos like this one.

The steel baggage car was formerly made as a resin kit by F&C, and rumors persist that Steve will eventually release a one-piece body of it. The second car is the ex-Besler train coach, imported in brass by Crown Custom. The heavyweight looks like one of the series with the taller windows that NKP Brass imported as an O&W coach.

I haven't identified a match for the truck, but it should be easily identified by somebody with more knowledge than me. I'm not sure what the truck is loading/unloading. They have a regular station cart with baggage or perhaps storage mail. Most of the passenger trains through New Britain carry REA traffic, it's just interesting that the truck is not labeled as such. Although it's possible that it is the shipper's truck, and they simply opted to load from their truck, rather than unloading it to the platform before loading it on the baggage car. I also find it interesting that so many of these trains carry REA traffic, since most of the passenger service through New Britain only goes as far as Waterbury (or Hartford eastbound). Train #472 comes from Waterbury to Hartford, and trains #131-136 are Boston to Waterbury and back (which also has an RPO).

In this case, I think it's #463, as the shadows indicate afternoon. During the summer this would be 4:46, (5:46 during daylight savings). This train handled REA traffic from Hartford to Waterbury (assigned 3'). Note that despite the full trees, #1007 still sports its pilot plow.

But one of the reasons I'm always hunting down additional photos of New Britain, despite the large number here at the station is that each different angle may provide a view of something in the background that I don't already have.

In this case a look at the coal and coke sheds for Union Manufacturing:

I find these quite interesting. The track is clearly labeled on some maps, and does not have an in-ground hopper for coal to be dumped. Looking at the height of the lower wall, it would appear that they most likely received gondolas of coal and coke that were unloaded by shoveling. At least that's my best guess. There's a gondola (probably coal for the T-2-b 0-6-0 switchers) and what looks like a New Haven double sheathed box car, both on the mechanical department track.

Fortunately, I don't have to worry about unloading the cars, just building the structure and spotting a few gondolas. The are visible in aerial photos, like this one:

But for the trackside view, that crop of that photo of #1007 is the best I have so far. In the aerial photo (from 1955) you can see a 44-tonner moving a New Haven box car on that track. Another box car is sitting on one of the mechanical department tracks (the same one as the gon and box car above), which used to be inside the engine house here. The workshop and one wall of the old engine house still stands. City Supply and Swift & Upton lumber are across the mainline. The stub track between the mainline and the billboard that now ends at Elm Street used to be to the two yard tracks (#15 and #17) that had, by this time, become a parking lot.

Despite the usefulness of such photos, it's amazing how much you can't see. I'll address something that's hiding in the shadows of that engine house wall in the next post, along with what used to be where those piles of lumber are.

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Building a Roster: What is Rare?

K-1-d #404 with World of Mirth train in New Britain.
August 1940. Kent Cochrane 
A question was posted in response to a post by Marty McGuirk on the Modeling Steam Era Freight Cars blog some time ago. The post itself is regarding the percentage that each road comprises of a study of box cars through White River Junction, VT over several days in 1954.

The statistics are quite interesting, with 50% of the 3,605 box cars that were documented in those days. Marty included a pie chart along with a list of almost all of the reporting marks and their individual percentages.

Simon Dunkley questioned why the list showed that 50% of the cars were CN, but the pie chart shows at least 60% of the cars were CN.

The answer is simple - Marty only included the Top 10 roads in the pie chart. In which case the CN accounts for nearly 68% of the cars.

Ignoring the rest of the roads, no matter how small of a percentage of the total, skews the numbers. 

Individually, the roads represent what might be viewed as "statistically insignificant" in many cases. But collectively, they account for almost 27% of the cars during those days. I think it's important to remember that.

Freight Car Syndromes
I think it was John Nehrich that coined the "Pickle Car Syndrome." His point was that people like unusual cars (like pickle cars), and so they are overrepresented on our layouts. In general, I agree with this.

A related syndrome is "RTR Syndrome" in that we also overrepresent cars that are most easily acquired. I have far too many 1932 ARA Box Cars. Atlas made it simple by releasing the model with 10 different prototypical variations, covering nearly every one of the 26 roads that rostered the cars. So I have at least 10, probably more.

But for a prototype with around 15,000 total copies, I probably should only have 1 or 2 on the layout at any time. But because the current size of my roster is barely enough to cover a given operating session, almost all of them are on the layout during that session.

Many modelers combat this by determining how many cars they need of a given prototype (of the roster of box cars in 1950, for example, the 1932 ARA box car accounts for about 2% of the entire fleet of North American Box Cars. So out of 100 box cars on the layout, two of them should be 1932 ARA box cars. So they decide which two to purchase, and that's it.

This approach is often combined with a similar look at a given road's roster. For example, you might determine that you only need 1 box car owned by the New Haven railroad. They accounted for less than 2% of the national box car fleet. The obvious choice would be a 1937 AAR box car, since that was the most numerous box car owned by the New Haven Railroad in 1950. But they also owned PS-1 box cars, and more interestingly, 10' IH PS-1 box cars. What do you do?

This is where I think we fall victim to the "36-foot Double-Sheathed Box Car Syndrome."

In our quest to build a more "realistic" roster for our layouts, and ignoring budgetary concerns, we often restrict ourselves from purchasing rare cars, or too many cars of a given road, prototype, whatever. A number of studies have been done on 36-foot Double Sheathed box cars, which would seem to indicate that in 1950 your typical layout should have only one or two.

In 1950 only 8% of the national box car fleet were less than 40' in length, and of those, 71% were CN or CP Fowler single sheathed box cars. So in theory, out of 100 box cars, you need 8 cars less than 40-feet in length, and 5 or 6 of them should be Fowler cars, and 1 or 2 of them double-sheathed box cars.

The problem is, for many of us those specific 36-foot Double Sheathed box cars are always on the layout. Let's say it's an D&H car, F&C makes four variations of this car. There were about 1,000 still in service in 1950, or 0.1% of the national fleet. 

In our attempt to show that short double-sheathed cars are rare by only having one or two in our roster, we have instead given the impression that the D&H short double-sheathed car is relatively common in small numbers. Why? Because it's always on the layout.

This is a similar problem as reducing a list of approximately 60 road names with little representation, to a Top 10 list. We've skewed the numbers. In fact, by attaching hard numbers to several days' worth of data is undoubtedly skewing the numbers as well, almost certainly in favor of the CN and CV in that particular study.

A Cure?
So what do we do? Well, in terms of a study such as the one Marty references, that's among the best we have. So it's a great starting point. If we're modeling a specific prototype like New Britain, I can also look at the industries themselves to help determine appropriate roads based on prototypical offline industries. I can go further and look at the traffic on the through trains, and their origination and destination.

With the Waybill studies that have been done by others, plus other resources (such as American Commodity Flow published in the early '50s) I can see where the bulk of inbound cars are coming from with loads for CT. All of this helps.

But what do we do with this actual data? First, understand that nearly every box car that is owned in 1950 is fair game. This is part of your roster. If you want one 1932 ARA box car for each road that owned one, that's great. The more the better. 

Because what you roster doesn't have to be the same as what you run.

Sure, if you have different operators at every session, then you can run the same cars representing the same day every session. I would like more variety than that. I'm already accounting for changes over the years by building structures that can be swapped out as needed. Autos can be changed, and the era was a busy time for building new freight cars showing the evolution of freight cars in this period. And the New Haven not only retired steam in this era, but their diesel acquisitions were so rapid that the motive power changes on almost an annual basis during this time too.

The data from studies like the one Marty references is fantastic for populating your operating session from your larger roster of freight cars. I classify cars as common, uncommon, and rare.

Common cars are the ones that should not only appear in every session, but probably in quantities greater than one. In my case that includes PRR X29 box cars, NYC USRA-design steel box cars, and CN/CP Fowler box cars, among others. 1937 AAR box cars in general also fit this category. This also includes roads themselves, such as PRR, B&O, NH, CN, CP,  NYC, etc. in my case. For these handful of prototypes I need to figure out roughly how many (usually 2-3) would appear in any given operating session and make sure I have enough quantity to meet this demand. These cars account for about 50% of those in a session.

Uncommon cars are those that should appear in most sessions, but rarely in quantities of more than one or two. In Marty's post this comprises the roads that have a greater than 1% distribution. These cars account for about 25%. The quantity refers to the roads as a whole, individual cars may be different prototypes from the same road, or even the same prototype if there is a large amount of a single type of car on that road. Most of these cars will appear every few sessions.

Rare cars are those that shouldn't appear in every operating session. Or everything that is less than 1%. Of a given road or prototype, there probably shouldn't be more than 1 per session. This is about 25% of the mix based on Marty's post. These can be just about anything. While these make up a sizable portion of what's in the mix on the layout, a given car might appear very, very rarely.

DER-1 (DL-109) locomotives with Strates train at Whiting Street Yard.
June 1949. Kent Cochrane.
So the example of this post are some circus trains in New Britain. In various books are photos of the Ringling Brothers train in New Britain too. But there won't be a circus train every session. Maybe not more than once or twice a year. Most likely one will be used for my more seasoned operators, since they will tie up a lot of yard tracks making regular work more complicated. Otherwise they will be display and photograph models.

Another example is the PRR X30 box car. These were built specifically for servicing American La France in Elmira, NY to deliver fire engines. Sometime c1950 New Britain received new fire trucks, at least two, a pumper and an aerial from American LaFrance which were probably delivered in one of these box cars. The pumper is very similar to the Sylvan Scale Models 700-series open cab model. Corgi makes (made?) an American LaFrance aerial that could be a good starting point. The Jordan fire truck looks a lot like an earlier truck that was still in service as well. There is a fire station next to the police station on Commercial Street across from New Britain Station, so these are models that I'll be able to use. Of course, the station itself will be a flat, but the models being delivered in an X30 box car would make for an interesting photo too.

So buy or build whatever you want. Personally, as a freight car enthusiast, I want pretty much anything that is appropriate for my era that I can get. That's great. Because a larger roster allows you to more accurately populate your operating sessions. 

Thursday, March 16, 2017

DEY-5 (ALCO S-2) #0604 at New Britain Station

Another Kent Cochrane photo, c1947. 

So Chris pointed out that several of our recent posts have been well synchronized. Perhaps this one will be as well, a photo he found along with one of #0604 in Essex down in his neck of the woods.

Although I had a copy of this picture, the fact that he just resent it was a bit of luck as well. I hadn't seen the email yet, when I sent him an email to let him know that Westerfield just released the NYC USRA-design steel auto car as a one-piece body and suggested that he should have one. Imagine my surprise when I opened the email he sent me, and there is that very prototype right behind #0604.

I haven't identified the single-sheathed box car or the tank car yet. But I love the shot. The 22 S-2s were delivered to the New Haven in 1943 to 1944. The first nine had horizontal radiator shutters as seen here. #0605 and #0606 were assigned to the Cedar Hill to Holyoke freights (NY-2, NY-4, YN-1, YN-3) starting in 1945, displacing the J-1 class mikados. So for an all-steam session I need to go back farther than 1946, to November 1944.

#0604 here had dual cab signals for use on both the Hartford Line (allowing it to work the NY/YN freights) and Shoreline (which is how it would have ended up in Essex on one of the Shoreline locals). The cab signal box can be seen in front of the cab.

The current Atlas model is definitely the way to go, although Chris and I are looking into how we'll do the New Haven style low-clearance cab. It's not just a function of lowering the roof (with a different but documented radius), but it alters the windows, and the rear door is shorter to accommodate the reverse lights lower position. Also note the whistle in front of the cab instead of a horn.

I'll model #0605 and #0606 and let #0604 visit periodically from Chris's layout.  I'll probably model one with the vertical radiator shutters as well. Atlas makes both variations.

Note the amount of trash and debris on the station track, and another auto in the background to identify. I wonder what color autos to get - they all look black in the photos, but models come in a variety of (presumably accurately researched) colors.

Monday, March 13, 2017

Household Fuel Part II: Operations

So I've established that the primary supplier for Household Fuel is the Glen Alden Coal Company of Ashley, PA, with locations in several other Pennsylvania towns. The largest breaker of the company is serviced by the CNJ, and the others by DL&W.

The CNJ and DL&W have two primary entry points to the New Haven via established routes. Specific trains vary by year.

By Car Float via Oak Point
CNJ at Jersey City > car float > NH at Oak Point
  • GN-4 > Bridgeport > EA-2 > New Britain
  • HN-2 > Cedar Hill > NY-2 > New Britain
  • HN-4 > Cedar Hill > NY-2 > New Britain
  • HN-2 > Cedar Hill > NY-4 > New Britain
  • HN-4 > Cedar Hill > NY-4 > New Britain

By Rail via Maybrook
DL&W > NYO&W > NH at Maybrook
CNJ > L&H > NH at Maybrook
DL&W > L&H > NH at Maybrook
  • OA-2 > New Britain
  • OA-4 > New Britain
  • OA-6 > New Britain 
Car service rules indicate that when an empty car is requested, that all attempts should be made to load a car from the destination road, or a road that is along or beyond that route and will share in the revenue. But I think hoppers are a unique class. The New Haven had 993 hoppers in 1950. I believe most of these stayed on home rails. Something like 60% of bituminous coal entered CT by water. Much of this was for railroad use. But many industries relied on this coal as well, and I believe the coal that came in by water was delivered to such businesses in NH hoppers.

On the other hand, anthracite was shipped to the NH almost entirely by rail.

The New Haven didn't originate any coal, and other commodities like trap rock were heavy and tended to not be shipped very far. So I think that the chances that there were empty NH hoppers on the DL&W or CNJ is low.

While one could make a case the B&O, NYC, or PRR had plenty of free roaming hoppers and could be loaded, none of these roads were in the established routes from any of the Glen Alden collieries. So my guess is that most of these loads would be delivered in CNJ or DL&W hoppers, depending on their source. Furthermore, in pictures of collieries, the cars waiting to be loaded (or with loads ready to ship) tend to be primarily those of the home road.

So on the New Haven, there is a good supply of hoppers from other roads, especially the B&O, CNJ,  NYC, PRR, RDG, and others, and I think they would primarily be in hoppers form the home road where the colliery is located.

That being the case (accurately or not), for Household Fuel I'm looking for CNJ, CRP, and DL&W hoppers. Other industries and coal dealers will receive hoppers from other roads, depending on their origination.

So the 1947 rosters with suggested models are:

62000-62999 1905 Common Design (812) (Bowser is close)
63000-64999 9-Panel Hoppers (1198) (F&C)
65000-65499 USRA Hoppers (345) (Accurail, MTH, Tichy)
66000-66999 9-Panel Hoppers (640) (F&C)
67000-67999 Welded Fishbelly Hoppers (765) (Bowser/ex-Stewart with modifications)

I'll be building two 9-panel hoppers (one from each series), and a welded fishbelly hopper (along with some Reading hoppers of the same design).

10001-10500 AAR Standard 50-ton Hopper (500) (Kadee undec with wine door locks)
62500-62999 1905 Common Design (174) (Bowser is close)
63000-64999 9-Panel Hoppers (771) (F&C)
65040-65499 USRA Hoppers (150) (Accurail, MTH, Tichy)
66000-66999 9-Panel Hoppers (349) (F&C)
67000-67999 Welded Fishbelly Hoppers (232) (Bowser/ex-Stewart with modifications)

I'm planning on an AAR Standard hopper, and have a USRA hopper. I might do a 9-panel hopper as well.

The DL&W fleet is a little harder to model, unfortunately. Any help is appreciated!
76000-77599 (69 + 23) Standard Steel 1903 Design Twin Hopper (similar) (modified Westerfield)
78100-78599 (299 + 62) 10-panel Standard Steel Twin Hopper
78600-79949 (847 + 199) 12-panel Standard Steel Twin Hopper
79950-80949 (20) (?)
81000-81799 USRA Twin Hopper (704) (Accurail, MTH, Tichy)
81800-83299 (1249 + 234) 10-Panel Standard Steel Twin Hopper
83300-83799 (498) Enterprise-Design Twin Hopper
84082-84949 (821) Enterprise-Design Triple Hopper
85000-85499 (499) Enterprise-Design Twin Hopper
85500-86499 (500) PS-3 Welded 50-ton Twin Hopper (built 1947) (Train-Miniatures, now Walthers)

I'll need to figure out more options, but I'll start with a USRA hopper.

Modeling Notes
For the USRA hoppers, I have settled on the MTH model. The dimensions are accurate (unlike the Tichy model) and they have separately applied details (unlike the Accurail model). They all have K-series brakes, despite the review in Model Railroader years ago, and either horizontal (stemwinder) handbrakes, or the USRA lever-style.

I've refitted a CRP hopper with AB brakes and an Ajax handbrake to experiment. I'll need to do the same for the NH hoppers, and a CNJ one as it appears based on the ORER the CNJ cars had geared handbrakes. Most of them I'll leave with the K-series brakes to make things simpler. Accurail and Tichy detail parts are both available

The downside to the MTH models is that either the paint schemes are too early for my era, or they don't have the correct schemes. So I'm stripping and redecorating them. I've disassembled one to do this, but I'm going to try leaving the next one intact other than removing the trucks and couplers.

Builder's photo from the 1940 Cyclopedia

The DL&W Enteprise-Design Twin Hopper is similar to the later AAR Standard twin, but about a foot longer. Several other roads had hoppers built to this design in the '20s and '30s. I might use one of Resin Car Works models for this, or perhaps I can convince Frank to do this earlier, larger version.

Pictures of the DL&W 10-panel and 12-panel hoppers are in Martin Robert Karig III's Coal Cars: The First Three Hundred Years. I am not aware of any models of these, even though they are the largest classes on the road in 1947. Perhaps I can persuade Steve Funaro to make them...

The DL&W Enterprise-Design Triple Hopper is another tough one. I don't know if it's an ARA triple or just similar yet. It has the "chisel taper" like the other cars of this design. There isn't a good model for this that I'm aware of. MDC/Roundhouse and Athearn both have cars that superficially resemble it, but the ends, sideframes and number of posts are wrong. The Accurail and Bowser cars have a different taper and are of different cars altogether.

What it really comes down to is that the DL&W had an unusual hopper fleet, either unique, or of less common designs that only resemble the much more commonly built cars. So I'll have to settle for the USRA cars for now.

Thursday, March 9, 2017

I-1 #1001 Eastbound c1946-7

This photo of I-1 #1001 leaving the station is the only photo I have from this perspective. Another Kent Cochrane photo, the date is unknown but c1946-7.

The first car behind the locomotive is a coach converted from the Besler steam train. It was a streamlined trainset that consisted of a combine power car and a coach. Some amazing footage is available on YouTube.

Frequent mechanical failures resulted in the railcar being converted to a combine and the coach in 1943. Crown Custom imported the railcar along with the ex-Besler combine and coach. I have the coach.

Although the second head-end car looks more like a baggage car than an RPO and #472 is the only one that I'm aware of that would be hauling a second one, I don't think it's that train as it arrived in New Britain at 8:24 PM, picked up the storage mail for the day, and left at 8:30 PM. This would be the wrong place to be taking a photo at that time of the evening, and the shadows are all wrong.

The heavyweight looks like one of the classes that is a match for the NKP brass coach identified as an O&W coach.

This is probably the best photo that includes the crane assigned to New Britain, and is enough to confirm that it's the same type as seen in a Shoreliner article on Fall River. More on that later.

The gondola is an older class of 6,500 hopper-bottom gondolas built for the New Haven between 1906 and 1911, and rebuilt in the mid-twenties. A nice picture of a group of these rebuilt cars in May 1925 is on pg. 541 of New Haven Power. It appears the hoppers have been removed.

I can't make out any detail on the two freight cars, unfortunately.

Note the line poles, most of the water column is hidden behind the speed limit sign. Also, the two-story gateman's shanty is entirely out of view behind the train. There's also a very tall light post that I've never noticed before near the station. I'll need to look into that a bit more. These will probably be the only signals on the layout as well, although I'd like to make them operational.

There are a few automobiles in the photo, maybe an expert in pre-50 autos can identify them for me? I wonder if the one to the right of the train was Kent Cochrane's?

Monday, March 6, 2017

Household Fuel Part I: The Prototype

So Dick and I took a trip out to check out Household Fuel to get some rough measurements to start a model.

The Company: Household Fuel Co., 24 Dwight Ct, New Britain, CT.
With a little additional research on forums dedicated to finding inexpensive coal for home heating in the present day I learned that Household Fuel (aka Household Coal and Oil Co.) was started c1918 (other reports state 1929), and continued until c2012 when the elevator finally gave out and it was too expensive to repair it.

The elevator was facing the track, now a busway, and the elevator was removed during the construction of the busway, so I'm not sure the business could have continued regardless. I'm still trying to track down the owner, as I've heard they live in West Hartford. I'm hoping they may have some memories of when they were served by rail or, even better, photographs and/or records from my era. It would be interesting to see how close our estimated dimensions are too if they have access to the original plans, or are at least willing to provide access to the property.

The Supplier: Glen Alden Coal Co., Ashley, PA.
My research uncovered ads for Household Fuel that indicated they sold Blue Coal. The Glen Alden Coal Co. was formed in 1921 after an antitrust suit against the DL&W forced them to divest the coal operations.  The company is famous for the Huber Breaker, among the largest and most modern of its time, and Blue Coal. They had several collieries:

  • Ashley, PA (Huber Breaker), served by the CNJ (and the LV, I think);
  • Nanticoke, PA (Loomis Breaker), served by the DL&W;
  • Hannover Township, PA (Truesdale Breaker), served by the DL&W; and 
  • Scranton, PA (Diamond Breaker), served by the DL&W

As a marketing strategy, they spray dyed the coal blue. I've seen it described as similar to the color of a chalk line or pool cue chalk and the few pictures I've seen of present day samples reflect that. Although it's certainly possible that they would have received other brands of anthracite, because they were advertising Blue Coal specifically, I'm going to assume that's primarily, if not entirely, what they received.

All of this information will be useful when preparing waybills for the layout.

The Builder: Nicholson Co., 247 Park Ave, New York, NY.
The silo capacities are 250 tons each. Signs on the structure indicate it was designed and erected by Nicholson, located at 247 Park Avenue, New York (City, presumably).

I found a few references in Saward's Journal: A Progressive Coal Trade Weekly, Volume 11, Issues 27-52 (1928):

"In our recent article describing the new plant of the Hudson Feed Co. at Yonkers N.Y., the name of the builder was inadvertently omitted. This plant, which will be one of the most modern and up-to-date in the Hudson River Valley, was designed and is being erected by the Nicholson Co. of 247 Park avenue, New York."

"Thousands of Nicholson Coal Pockets are daily performing their task of handling and storing coal at a minimum of cost. An indication of their economic value and superior construction lies in the fact..."

"It proves why owners of Nicholson pockets, when they build again, always "repeat." They are satisfied as to value, specification, and performance. It proves why over 39% of all Nicholson contracts are repeat contracts.

The illustrated coal pocket for their advertisement for repeat customers is the fourth for the Dependable Coal Corporation, and is the coal pocket for Babylon, L.I. plant. I could only get snippets due to copyright restrictions.

It also appears that some of the facilities at the Virginian Railway's Tidewater Coal Terminal were built by Nicholson.

So it would appear that they erected a lot of coal pockets, I'd be interested in seeing if there were any of the same basic design here. has a partial picture of the Dependable Coal Co. pocket in Babylon in 1950.

The Coal Pocket
Our estimate is that the structure is 76 ft. long, 55 ft. tall, but we still needed to determine the diameter of the silos since they overlapped a bit. Dick and I used different approaches, but ended up with the same estimate of 16 feet. I don't recall Dick's more sophisticated approach, but I simply divided the 76 feet by 5 (silos) and came up with 15.2 ft. I then figured 16 feet gives a bit of overlap and is a nice round number to work with.

The chutes are labeled for the size of coal, in order of smallest to largest: stove, nut (aka chestnut), pea, buck (aka buckwheat #1), rice (aka buckwheat #2).

Thursday, March 2, 2017

And now for something completely different!

Not trains, but cool!

Last night Joseph told me about an oversized load that would be coming through Canton (pretty much out my back door).

From what I recall, this is a turbine/generator for a new power plant in Oxford. This is the first of 6 such moves, although the last 3 or 4 turbines might be a little smaller. The move started by rail to Windsor Locks, CT. Then it was loaded onto this rig that brought it down to Simsbury (stopping at the old Wagner Ford property. Last night it went from there to Collinsville Antiques in New Hartford. It moves about 12 miles or so each night.

It is so heavy (I saw a reference to over 1,000,000 pounds including the rig), they install plates over some of the bridges. These span the bridge altogether avoiding any impact on the bridge. A large crane placed the two plates here. Apparently in Simsbury the bridge was a much larger span and used larger plates comprised of 6 or 8 pieces.

It's moving at 3-5 mph, by remote control. In the video you can see two men with remotes, I think each end is under separate control. The rig itself was reported at about 210-feet long, and 21-feet wide on 28 axles with 8 wheels per axle. So the bill included 224 tires. The total cost for moving them is $19 million.

J Supor and Son is the same company that moved the "Miracle on the Hudson" plane after it's emergency landing. Obviously they specialize in very large loads.

I-2 #1324 at the Station c1947

Another Kent Cochrane photo c1947. Of interest is the heavyweight cars with the taller windows, the old NKP brass O&W coaches are a match for some of these cars. Still working on digging a few of them up. Note the baggage car at the end of the train. Once again the wooden baggage car produced by Bethlehem Car Works. They didn't turn the trains in Waterbury, so you can easily spot eastbound trains on the Highland in photos because of this.

Although I haven't mentioned it in the earlier photos, the I-2 was produced in brass by Crown Custom. It's a beautiful locomotive, and veteran New Haven modeler, steam aficionado and very early NHRHTA member John Pryke's favorite brass NH locomotive (other than his scratch-built R-3-a, of course). Both very accurate in its execution and very smooth running, the model was released both with the cab control box, seen on the pilot in this photo, and without. Since the Highland Line did not have a cab control system installed, so both variations are appropriate on the layout. I have one of each and haven't settled on the road numbers to use just yet. The I-2 class was the primary steam locomotive in passenger service on the Highland Line. The smaller I-1 class (which has never been produced as a model), was the second most common, with the I-4 (produced by Crown Custom in brass and, more recently, Broadway Limited) more common as other locomotives were retired. Photos of both to come. All were replaced in passenger service on the Highland by spring 1948 by DERS-1b class (ALCo RS-1) locomotives.

Unlike most of the other steam, this model needs virtually no modifications as the New Haven made very few modifications to this class over their lifetime. A few details stand out under closer scrutiny when compared to the photo of #1300 here. This locomotive has a pilot plow applied, where #1300 did not at the time of that photo. These seem to have been installed as needed, and photos of the same locomotive over time can have it with or without. Also the number board on #1324 has been replaced with a simple painted one, as opposed to the original cast bronze (?) one seen on #1300. Most likely it was stolen. 

Behind the train are Wabash and T&NO single sheathed automobile cars. No road number is visible on the Wabash one, but the Murphy ends place it in one of seven series: 40000-40999, 45000-45399, 45400-45999, 46000-46001, 46002-46699, 46700-46999, 74600-46999; although two of those series (45400-, and 46000-series) had at least some cars delivered with steel doors.

Speedwitch Media had a single-sheathed Wabash automobile car, I don't recall which specific details. I have the F&C version which has the correct Murphy ends for this car. One of the nice things about the Speedwitch version was the etched metal towing staples that are very difficult to see in photos of the cars and were missed by the F&C kits. They'll be easy enough to fabricate, though. 

The T&NO car is also easy to model. It's a Speedwitch Media model of that series of cars, the A-50-4 class built in 1921.

These cars are most likely sitting in the yard waiting to be added to a Hartford to Maybrook freight that evening. The Whiting Street Yard had a concrete unloading ramp suitable for unloading autos, and these would have been unloaded there before being brought up to New Britain Yard as pictured here.

One of the reasons I love this picture, though, is the Dad with his kid looking at the locomotive, next to his tricycle. From when I first saw this picture, I decided that was a perfect scene to model, only to find after an extensive search that there is no HO-scale tricycle available. I was telling a couple of friends about the picture, and Bob mentioned that his daughter Karen would be able to make one. She wasn't a model railroader, but she had picked up a hobby modifying and painting the people on his layout. Several weeks later when I went over to help with the layout, he had a small package for me:

I'm sorry to say that Karen has since passed away, so this scene on the layout will have a more personal connection than just the father and son moment in the photo. Thanks Karen!

Monday, February 27, 2017

Line Poles

Line poles are a prominent feature in photos that just stood out to me. They are also a feature that I think tend to be overlooked on model railroads. Either they aren't present, or not much care is put into their modeling. Like the trackwork, the infrastructure around the railroad is always present, and in every photo you take of that scene. The reality is that you don't have to spend hours on them, you just need to take a closer look at photos and the prototype to better match what you're modeling.

Photos of the Highland Line are fairly easy to pick out due to the number of crossarms on the line poles. Like this Tom McNamara shot at Wooster St. (date unknown) of DERS-2c (RS-3) #554 with what looks like a race special or something as I think that's a diner behind the locomotive.

I've got links to a few sites that I found extremely helpful in understanding line poles (railroad and otherwise). The poles on the left appear to be the same line that runs through New Britain Yard. The ones on the right are consistent along the Highland Line, although you'll note that they aren't running through the center of New Britain. I haven't figured that out. They are definitely railroad line poles.

When looking at pictures of New Britain Yard, you'll notice that the number of crossarms is steadily decreasing over the years. This is less so on the Highland itself, although there is one fewer crossarm on the line on the right than in earlier pictures.

The line poles are also fairly tall. Since I don't know the actual height, I simply mocked up this scene and a line pole and tried them. I also mocked up a couple of other photographs. The original poles were a bit long, so I shortened them until they looked right. The taller height seems to continue through New Britain.

Although it's great to work with specific dimensions, this is also part of the art of modeling. Working with proportions and eyeballing things works very well. You'd be surprised at how good your eye is at estimating things once you have a little practice. In addition to the height, I also worked out a spacing that looked right on the layout. I knew how many poles I needed between Main and Elm streets, I just needed to adjust the spacing to look "right."

I'm using bamboo skewers with Rix crossarms. I clip the poles to length first, although they aren't all the same exact length (for gondola loads I'll be more precise). The bamboo skewers I found are a bit thicker than the Rix poles, but they look about right to me.  I also don't care for the Rix poles because they are notched for 5 crossarms, and I'm using far fewer. The notches are noticeable, particularly in photos. But other than staining the poles first, these techniques will work fine with Rix or any other commercial line poles.

I also experimented with chucking the skewers in my dremel to try to taper them, since the real poles often are. In the end I decided that it was too much work for too little reward.

I stain the poles in a mix of black and brown inks. I started with Micromark Railroad and Bridge Tie Stain, and also added some Citadel black and brown inks to the mix. The last batch (which I was using to stain ties) was weak, so I added some india ink. This primarily colors the top of the poles, and soaks in a little to "dirty up" the pole. The ones in the photo below soaked for at least two days.

After soaking overnight (at least), I dry them off, then use an oil pastel at the bottom of the pole to give a greasy creosote look, and Pan Pastels to weather the rest of the pole. Some are weathered more to a gray shade for variety, as some line poles fade to a very light gray. However, in the era I'm modeling, it appears the poles were replaced more frequently because color photos show them to be a more uniform dark brown.

This photo shows the crossarms being painted on the left, the various Pan Pastels and pastel crayon I'm using, the poles after being stained at the bottom, with others in various states of being colored. 

The crossarms are first painted with my usual choice of Rustoleum Camouflage spray paint. The insulators are painted with a Citadel or Reaper chainmail paint. I also used this for the crossarm supports. This is a silver paint for role-playing game miniatures (like D&D) that has a bit of black in it. I then use Citadel inks, usually green but occasionally blue or yellow, over the chainmail. The inks are transparent and give it that glass-like look. I then use Pan Pastels to weather the crossarm itself.

When attaching the crossarms, I drill a hole through the crossarm and all the way the pole, then mount it with a bit of phosphor bronze wire and CA. The wire acts as a mechanical joint, and also forms a mock bolt. I probably should use a nut-bolt-washer casting, but they are small, and since they are up fairly high I don't think they'll really show in photos anyway.

I drill a hole in the layout to mount the poles and leave the bottom pointy to plant them in the layout. That way they are easily removed, and easy to replace if somebody knocks them over or breaks them.

Note the differences in color and weathering. I'm also not concerned about slightly warped poles, as that's not uncommon on the prototype.

I initially intended to string the poles, but this proved impractical. They are along the edge of the layout, and between the mainline and the yard tracks in the yard.  The lines were a combination of too low to reach under, and too high to comfortably reach over. Fortunately, the lines themselves are often nearly invisible in photos of the prototype, but it is one of the compromises I wish I didn't have to make.

Here are a few sites that have more information about line poles that I found during my research: and
The final post in this thread has specific recollections of NH line poles.
Lots of great info and photos, particularly the section on Railway Line Poles.

Bill Gill sent me another link he's found:

Also, among other things, Lou Sassi has a great article on detailing line poles in How to Build and Detail Model Railroad Scenes. Of particular note is his technique to add a prototypical sag to the lines. While I determined that I can't really add lines to my poles, straight and taut lines are one of my pet peeves when adding line poles to a model railroad. I find it more distracting than not having lines at all.

Thursday, February 23, 2017

DEY-4 (44-tonner) Part III: Modeling

Modeling all four phases of 44-tonner that the New Haven owned is relatively easy. In reality, unless you are modeling the early-'40s, you only need to consider 3 phases.

Phase Ib
This is #0800 in its original configuration and is the subject of the Custom Brass "early version" of the 44-tonner. Of the 239 locomotives built, only 16 were built to this configuration so it was an odd choice for them to select considering GE built 50 of the Phase 1c, or the third most common variation.

W&R also imported this variation.

Phase Ic
W&R Brass imported this version of the locomotive, and it's a very accurate model, other than the placement of the horn which should be in front of the stack on the forward hood.

Phase III
Again, W&R Brass imported this, although the engine intake vents are shaped like the Phase IV locomotives. It's a minor detail, but it's there. However, since this version is very similar to the Phase IV locomotive altogether, I have opted to modify the Bachman model.

I just found out that Keystone also had a Phase III model kit. In the past I've heard they'd done a Phase I of some sort too, but I haven't found any pictures or specific information on them yet.

Brass Trains sold a custom painted and weathered 44-tonner (a W&R model) that has the intakes of the correct size. Probably modified by the modeler.


Phase IV
W&R Brass also imported this (along with Sunset Models and Westside Models), and Keystone Locomotive Works (upper right) produced a brass kit with some cast parts like the hood ends and cab; the Bachmann model is the easiest to get and can be made to perform well. My only real complaints about the Bachmann model are the very thick pilot/footboards and windows that appear a bit under-sized.

Modified Bachmann Phase III
I'll start with the Phase III model, which is a modified Bachmann model. While the W&R one is very well done, I haven't actually come across a Phase III one for sale. More importantly, though, I wanted to model the hood hatch covers in an open position. On the brass model they are closed, and would not be easy to modify.

To start with, remove the circuit board and the plastic holder that snaps on top of the chassis itself. You won't need them. I used an ESU Loksound Micro v4 decoder, and two 1/2" speakers from Tony's Trains. I had to file the sides of the speaker enclosures slightly to fit. I haven't installed the lights yet but here's what it looks like using Kapton tape to keep everything in place. As you can see, I've removed the shell a lot on this locomotive (to show people the decoder and sound installation), and the tape isn't sticking that well. It's not essential at this point, but I will point out that the black wires on the left side are slightly damaged from putting on the shell, so make sure they are not getting pinched.

The speakers are facing down through the trucks. My original plan was to have them facing up, through the vents on top of the hood (which I opened up), but that's no longer possible because...

...I also added an additional 3 ounces of weight. This was done with the usual peel-and-stick 1/2 oz weights, one on each side of the cab, and two under each hood.

For details, I added the hatch covers (I have to fix the supports on one of them), made the engine intakes smaller, added drip guards, and also added the stack covers by cutting off a very thin slice from the top of the stacks of another Bachmann shell. The door handles were shaved off and replaced with wire handles.

I also thinned the excessively thick footboard and pilot, and replaced the original uncoupling lever brackets with wire eyebolts. 

Wow, look how different the Warm Orange looks in those three photos! It's the same model folks, sitting in the same place on the layout, just different camera angles.

I plan on replacing the hinges for the hatch, they were actually rounded on the top, and I'll use some of the screen material from a donor shell (that is used on the generator vents) to install behind the engine intakes.

The locomotive performs very well. I just extended Track #5 around the helix, which required a ridiculously steep grade at the end so I could keep it level to that point. This locomotive pushed 9 cars up that grade + the 2% grade of the helix itself - all on a 26" radius curve, of course. Before I added the weight it struggled with 3 cars up the 2% grade.

W&R Phase Ic with Bachmann Chassis
To start, it's important to note that the Bachmann model has used two quite different chassis over the years. The original used two motors. This takes up more space, at a lower weight, and complicates DCC installations since there's no guarantee that the two motors will perform exactly the same. So I only use the single motor chassis.

To make the chassis fit, you need to shorten the coupler box mounting pad on the W&R shell (the modified shell is on the left in the picture above).

The chassis is a tight fit. So tight that you will also need to mill a bit off of the ends, and the side of the ends to clear the radiator shutters which are a part that is soldered in place and thicker than the wall of the hood itself. This is the silver portion of the chassis in the photo.

You also need to add a 0.05" thick spacer to bring the shell up to the correct height. I used strip styrene. I have not experimented with extra weight yet, but I should be able to fit it under each hood like the Bachmann model.

I still need to get speakers for this one. The biggest issue is that the two Ic locomotives will be painted in the delivery scheme of Pullman Green with Deluxe Gold lettering. Unfortunately, there aren't any decals available yet with the correct "New Haven" spelled out on the cab. Everything I can find is too large and doesn't fit. As soon as I get around to having some made I will post a source.

Other than being a little lighter right now, this performs exactly like the other one, as would be expected with the same chassis.

Friday, February 17, 2017

DEY-4 (44-tonner) Part II: Operations

Henry Statkowski pointed out the class designation on the builder's plate: B-B-88/88-4GE733 and that it tells you more about the locomotive:
  • B-B is a classification that indicates there are two two-axle trucks, and all of the axles are powered.
  • The 4GE733 indicates that there are four GE 733 traction motors.
  • The 88/88 took a little research. But I found that the 45-tonner is a B-B-90/90 and the 80-tonner is a B-B 160/160. Then I found a 44-tonner operators manual (which happens to be for Phase III locomotives which started with s/n 18145) and could confirm that the weight of the locomotive was listed as 88,000 lbs.
It would be interesting to see if operator manuals for earlier or later 44-tonners had a different class designation.

Aside from the Extra 2000 South article, there are some other resources for information on the operation and history of the DEY-4 locomotives on the New Haven. Here's the information I have from Engine Assignment Books, New Haven Condemnation records, and a New Haven Mechanical Department document from 1955. There are a some contradictions in these sources.

DEY-4 #809 with NE-5 C-616 at Readville c1951
Engine Assignments

April 24, 1949
0800 - Readville Yard
0801 - Woonsocket Yard
0802 - New Britain Yard
0803 - Brocktown Yard
0804 - Putnam Yard
0805 - New Britain Yard
0806 - Meriden Yard
0807 - Westfield Yard
0808 - South Norwalk Yard
0809 - New Bedford Yard
0810 - New Bedford Yard
0811 - Holyoke Switcher
0812 - Cedar Hill/7:00 AM Manufacturers North End
0813 - Providence Pontiac-Bristol Local
0814 - Norwich Yard
0815 - Taunton Yard
0816 - Fall River Yard
0817 - Oak Point Work Train
0818 - Bridgeport Wire Train

September 25, 1949
0800 - Readville Yard
0801 - Woonsocket Yard
0802 - Meriden Yard
0803 - Brockton Yard
0804 - Putnam Yard
0805 - New Britain Yard
0806 - New Britain Yard
0807 - Holyoke Yard
0808 - South Norwalk Yard
0809 - New Bedford Yard
0810 - New Bedford Yard
0811 - Westfield Road Switcher
0812 - Cedar Hill/7:00 AM Manufacturers North End
0813 - Providence-Bristol Local
0814 - Norwich Yard
0815 - Taunton Yard
0816 - Fall River Yard
0817 - Oak Point Work Train
0818 - Bridgeport Wire Train

October 2, 1950
0800 - Taunton Yard
0801 - Woonsocket Yard
0802 - Meriden Yard
0803 - Brocktown Yard
0804 - Putnam Yard
0805 - New Britain Yard
0806 - New Britain Yard
0807 - Westfield Road Switcher
0808 - Providence Yard
0809 - New Bedford Yard
0810 - Readville Yard
0811 - South Norwalk Yard
0812 - Cedar Hill/7:00 AM Manufacturers North End
0813 - Providence Relief/Spare
0814 - Norwich Yard
0815 - Bridgeport Seaview Ave. R. R.
0816 - New Bedford Yard
0817 - Oak Point Wire Train
0818 - Bridgeport Wire Train

April 27, 1952
0800 - New Bedford Yard
0801 - Providence-Poscoag Local
0802 - Meriden Yard
0803 - Brocktown Yard
0804 - New Britain Yard
0805 - Woonsocket Yard
0806 - Holyoke Yard
0807 - Norwich Yard
0808 - Putnam Yard
0809 - Fall River Yard
0810 - New Britain Yard
0811 - South Norwalk Yard
0812 - Cedar Hill/7:00 AM Manufacturers North End
0813 - Readville Yard
0814 - Providence Shopping Margin
0815 - Cedar Hill Work Train
0816 - Bridgeport Seaview Ave. R. R.
0817 - Bridgeport Relief for Wire Train
0818 - Cedar Hill Work Train

September 28, 1952
0800 - Boston Work Train
0801 - Putnam Yard
0802 - New Britain Yard
0803 - Boston Work Train
0804 - New Britain Yard
0805 - Woonsocket Yard
0806 - Cedar Hill Spare/Shopping Margin
0807 - Norwich Yard
0808 - Providence Shopping Margin
0809 - Boston Spare Shopping Margin
0810 - Meriden Yard
0811 - Providence Work Train
0812 - Cedar Hill/8:00 AM Manufacturers North End
0813 - Readville Yard
0814 - Bridgeport Seaview Ave. R. R.
0815 - South Norwalk Yard
0816 - Holyoke Yard
0817 - Bridgeport Spare/Shopping Margin
0818 - Cedar Hill Work Train

October 30, 1955 (courtesy of Ed Ozog on the NHRHTA forum)
He also posted a great shot of #0813 on the Providence-Poscoag local which also partially answers a question I've had for a while: How many cars can a 44-tonner handle? At least 9, apparently.
I'd also recommend Ed's sites, starting with New Haven Steam Locomotives and don't forget to scroll down on the home page to see a list of his other excellent railroad sites.
0801 - Bridgeport Seaview Ave. R. R.*
0802 - Hartford Shopping Margin
0807 - Woonsocket Yard
0809 - South Norwalk Yard
0810 - New Britain Yard
0811 - Providence Relief
0812 - New Haven Manufacturer R. R.*
0813 - Meriden Yard
0814 - New Haven Jitney*
0815 - Holyoke Yard
0816 - New Britain Yard
0817 - Van Nest Shop
0818 - Norwich Yard

October 28, 1956
0801 - New Haven Manufacturer R. R.*
0802 - New Britain Yard
0807 - Woonsocket Yard
0809 - New Britain Yard
0810 - Meriden Yard
0811 - Norwich Yard
0812 - Bridgeport Seaview Ave. R. R.*
0813 - Hartford Inspection/Relief
0814 - New Haven Inspection/Relief*
0815 - New Haven Jitney
0816 - Cedar Hill Shopping Margin
0817 - Van Nest Shop Switcher
0818 - Providence Inspection Relief

*Equipped with swivel drawbars

Disposition Information (only from New Haven Railroad)
0800 - Sold to Youghiogheny & Ohio Coal Co. (3-19-56)
0801 - Sold to Schiavone Bonanao Corp for scrap c1968
0802 - Sold to Youghiogheny & Ohio Coal Co. (12-24-58)
0803 - Condemned at Readville (12-21-53)
0804 - Sold to Washburn Wire Co. (8-7-53) -although listed as condemned at Meriden (8-31-53)
0805 - Sold to Marquette Cement Co. (9-11-53)
0806 - Sold to Washburn Wire Co. (8-7-53) -although listed as condemned at Meriden (8-31-53)
0807 - Sold to GE (1961) and rebuilt in North Bergen, NJ for Trinidad Government
0808 - Condemned at Providence (12-21-53)
0809 - Sold to Connecticut Co. (1958)
0810 - Sold to GE (1961) and rebuilt in North Bergen, NJ for Trinidad Government
0811 - Sold to GE (1961) and rebuilt in North Bergen, NJ for Trinidad Government
0812 - Scrapped by Penn Central (11/69)
0813 - Sold to New Haven Trap Rock Co./Branford Steam R. R. (1/25/60)
0814 - Sold to Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics (1/23/59)
0815 - Sold to GE (1961) and rebuilt in North Bergen, NJ for Trinidad Government
0816 - Retired c1957, Sold c1959 to Becker Sand & Gravel
0817 - Retired and scrapped by Penn Central 11/69 in Boston
0818 - Sold to GE (1961) and rebuilt in North Bergen, NJ for Trinidad Government

Painting Records 1955
Consult photos for other schemes worn by a given locomotive.
0800 - 401 Green (2-15-54)
0801 - Pullman Green and Warm Orange (6-30-53)
0802 - Pullman Green and Warm Orange (8-10-53)
0807 - Pullman Green and Warm Orange (12-4-52)
0809 - Hunter Green and Warm Orange (7-26-49)
0810 - Pullman Green and Warm Orange (7-2-53)
0811 - Pullman Green and Warm Orange (4-28-52)
0812 - Pullman Green and Warm Orange (6-16-50)
0813 - Pullman Green and Warm Orange (1-19-51)
0814 - Pullman Green and Warm Orange (8-28-52)
0815 - Pullman Green and Warm Orange (11-28-52)
0816 - Pullman Green and Warm Orange (5-1-53)
0817 - 401 Green (11-25-53)
0818 - 401 Green (11-1-54)

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

DEY-4 (44-Tonner) Part I: Prototype

Sparked by a discussion on the NHRHTA Forum regarding New Haven's 44-tonners, here's some more information.

Henry Statkowski sent me a scan of a builder's plate for locomotive #0812:

You can see the builder's plate on the frame, centered under the cab in this photo of #0807.
Photo taken by Ed Ozog at Charles Street Engine Yard, Providence, May 20, 1956.

I might look into either 3D printing or photo-etching the builders plates. The Build Number and Date are listed on each one, but fortunately this information is available.

The New Haven rostered 4 variations of the GE 44-tonner. Note that the locomotive phases described here are from railroad historians, and not official designations of the builder, although they roughly correspond to different builder's drawings. To the best of my knowledge, the 44-tonner phases were designated by Don Dover in issue #51 (March/April 1975) of Extra 2200 South. He differentiates 5 phases with 10 sub-phases based on appearance. While the phases are mostly chronological, there are some overlaps. For example, the 9 Phase Ib locomotives were built during a period that overlaps the Phase Ia and the Phase Ic locomotives. Phase IIb locomotives were built at the same time as the Phase IIa locomotives.

There is an enormous amount of information on these locomotives in this and the following issue, including a full roster of all 44-tonners built.*

Phase 1b
GE Drawing #PP4747841, 9 built 2/41 - 1/42

#0800: Build #12946 1/16/41
(14th 44-tonner built by GE)

This is the Custom Brass model, a prototype photo of #0800 is in New Haven Power. The main difference between this and the following Phase 1c is the steps. Phase 1b has a single set of steps each side, centered on the walkway in front of the cab door. All later phases has a set of steps on each corner of the frame. The New Haven later reconfigured the frame steps on #0800 as Phase Ic.

As with all of the DEY-4 locomotives except the final two, #0800 was delivered in Pullman Green with Deluxe Gold simply spelling out New Haven on the cab, with the road number underneath. Apparently this was never repainted, and was sold to the Youghiogheny & Ohio Coal Co. in Bridgeport on March 19, 1956, and then sold to a Stratford dealer in July, 1971, still in its original scheme and lettered as New Haven #0800.

DEY-4 0802 in New Britain 1949. Photo by Jim Karl.

Phase Ic
GE Drawing #PP4749880, 50 built 7/41-10/42

#0801: Build #13097 9/3/41
#0802: Build #13101 9/12/41
#0803: Build #15025 11/19/41
#0804: Build #15026 11/14/41
#0805: Build #15027 11/26/41
#0806: Build #13100 12/2/41

Note the three small vents on each door on the hood and large radiator shutters at the end of each side. In addition to the door on the nose, there are also sand fill hatches. All of the doors open toward the ends, and there are large generator vents next to the cab. The top of the hood does not have a hatch. Although not visible, the single-chime Wabco A2 horn is centered (from left to right) in front of the stack. The door on the nose is open (or removed?) in this photo.

Phase III
GE Drawing #PP6741126, 34 built 11/43-6/45

#0807: Build #18184 2/9/45
#0808: Build #18185 2/9/45
#0809: Build #18186 2/17/45
#0810: Build #18187 3/1/45
#0811: Build #18188 3/1/45
#0812: Build #18190 3/10/45
#0813: Build #18191 3/10/45
#0814: Build #18192 3/21/45
#0815: Build #27793 3/21/45
#0816: Build #27794 6/4/45

Note the louvered intake on the nose instead of a door. The vents on top of the hood have hinged covers. The radiator shutters have been moved to the nose, and the sand fill hatches relocated to the side at the end. The hood doors are installed in pairs opening in opposite directions. There are small intake vents on the side of the hood above the door closest to the end, and the generator vents are much smaller and between sets of the hood doors. The horn is next to the stack, on the fireman's side.

Phase IVa
GE Drawing #PP6741178, 106 built 3/45-1/49

#0817: Build #29080  12/4/47
#0818: Build #29081  12/4/47

Instead of the vents on top of the hood being protected by doors, the vents had tilting louvres that were controlled from inside the cab. The engine intake vents above the first door are longer, but not as tall as Phase III. Otherwise this is visually identical to the Phase III locomotives.

These two were delivered with Hunter Green cabs and Warm Orange hoods (as shown on the photo of the Phase III #0813 above.)

*The information in the original article was compiled by Allen Copeland and Dan Dover, with help from Ken Ardinger, Ray Corley, John Baskin Harper, Tom Lawson, Tom Nelligan, Joe Strapac, Bill Volkmer, and Raymond L Waye.