Tuesday, July 7, 2020

Operations - NY/YN (Cedar Hill - Holyoke) Freight Schedules

Here are a few of the schedules from the Arranged Freight Train Service (Symbol Freight) books for the Holyoke freights. While Chris and I have scanned a lot of these,  many were scanned by others. My interest is just in the information, not capturing the original document for the purpose of reprinting, so they aren't always the best quality.

The books have been titled different things over the years, with most of the ones here titled:

Arranged Freight Train Service
Symbol Book No. xx

However, starting in 1952 they dropped the word "train" from the title. Many just call these Symbol Books. I cover the books themselves in more detail here, and the sister publications titled Freight Train & Package Car Schedules here.

We're looking at the Arranged Freight Train Service books here, since they are employee publications that include blocking information and other instructions beyond just the schedules.

Symbol Freights are basically what modelers would call a "through freight." They are technically an "Extra" as is every non-passenger train on the New Haven, but the local freights are specifically called "Extras" on the New Haven in the documentation. The Symbol indicates their origination and termination points. In this case Cedar Hill, with a symbol of "N," and Holyoke, with a symbol of "Y." Eastbound trains have even numbers, and westbound odd numbers, just like passenger trains. So the eastbound NY trains are NY-2 and NY-4.

In most cases, the westbound train is the same symbol in reverse (NY-2/YN-1), but there are exceptions. For example, until 1948 EA-2 is an eastbound Bridgeport to Hartford train, but it's westbound counterpart was the more important ANE-1, the Hartford section of the Speed Witch that primarily (only?) handled L.C.L traffic. Looking at the 1953 schedules there are three Bay Ridge to Boston trains, starting with FGB-2, then GB-4 and GB-6, but only BNE-1 (Boston-New England - also a section of the Speed Witch) back to Bay Ridge. Everything else would be folded into NG-1, NG-3, and NNE-1 at Cedar Hill.

On a railroad the size of New Haven, there weren't too many symbols to remember:
You'll note that railroad timetables are in standard time (by law). They had to issue a new timetable in April and September to account for Daylight Savings. Since the railroads operate under standard time, the schedules differ by an hour between the two. While there are occasional extra passenger and employee timetables in some years, and in other years Supplements (updates) between the main timetables, I haven't seen any such supplements for freight schedules.

I have a couple of pages of what is supposed to be Freight Train & Package Car Schedule No. 75 with a date of July 1, 1946, but the Arranged Freight Train Service Symbol Book No. 75 was April 28 of that year. I haven't seen the actual Package Car Schedule that was copied, so I suspect that's incorrect information.

These are just a piece of the puzzle in our research. As noted below, these schedules have information regarding locomotive classes for each job, but that doesn't always match the Engine Assignment books, nor the photographic evidence. Of course, exceptions always existed, such as when a locomotive was being serviced, so a photo only documents a specific day. I tend to work from the Engine Assignment books backed up with photographs where possible to choose what locomotives I'll model for a specific job. The information in these pages is a decent substitute when those aren't available. Practical considerations (like how many locomotives I'll actually buy or modify) are also a factor in that regard.

Of interest is that it handles perishables for Meriden and New Britain, along with merchandise (L.C.L) for New Britain.

In 1946 the route is rated for a J-1 and DEY-5 (Alco S-2) with the same tonnage ratings.

By 1948 only the DEY-5 is listed, and in the April 20, 1948 Engine Utilization Report, it is DEY-5 it is 0605. By the September, 1948 Engine Assignments, DERS-2b (RS-2) is listed, with J-1 3011 noted as D.S.F (Dumped Save Fuel) in East Hartford also listed for NY-2 (for reserve).

By the 1949 schedules, the DERS-2b locomotives are assigned with increased tonnage ratings, through at least the April, 1953 issue (which I haven't scanned yet). Interestingly, the September 1952 Engine Assignments list DERS-2c (RS-3) locomotives 532 and 533 as assigned to the job, but the ratings haven't been updated in the freight schedules yet (as they were for other jobs handled by RS-3s).

I don't have the Arranged Freight Train Service books for September 1953, or 1954, but in NY-2 is still listed in the Freight Train & Package Car Schedule books.

April 28, 1946

September 29, 1946

April 25, 1948

September 29, 1949
After accounting for Daylight Savings, this is now running an hour earlier.

September 30, 1951
This is now scheduled two hours later, or an hour later than prior to 9/29/49.

April 27, 1952
The locomotive ratings are the same for all of these trains throughout this era. However, in the April 20, 1948 Engine Utilization Report, we find that DERS-2b 0502 is already handling this train, at least on that day.

NY-4 (and YN-3) were eliminated by the September, 1953 freight schedules. 

You'll note that this train serves as the local for most of the Canal Line north of Plainville (Avon to Southwick).

April 28, 1946

September 29, 1946

April 25, 1946

April 24, 1949
Note that NY-4 also serves as the New Hartford Local on this schedule.

September 30, 1951
After accounting for Daylight Savings, this is now running about an hour later.

As the return of NY-2, it protects a the closing of the Holyoke and New Britain Freight Houses, along with the paper companies in Holyoke and Acme Fast Freight in Meriden. The Freight Train & Package Car schedules published the time it took for advertised L.C.L service from points on the NH to certain specific destinations. The blocking instructions here highlight some of those, such as Philadelphia Transfer as described in this post.

September 29, 1946

April 25, 1948

April 24, 1949

September 30, 1951

April 27, 1952

The September, 1946 schedule doesn't mention it, but the other schedules note that YN-3 also switches Berlin and Cremo Brewery in New Britain (on the Springfield line just north of Berlin station). Along with NY-4 it was eliminated by the September 1953 schedule. 

September 29, 1946

April 25, 1948
After accounting for Daylight Savings, this is running an hour earlier.

April 24, 1949

September 30, 1951

Thursday, July 2, 2020

Operations - NY/YN (Cedar Hill-Holyoke) Freights

The train orders in the last post were all for the The Cedar Hill (N) - Holyoke (Y) Freights, which ran twice a day through most of the era I'm modeling, All of these trains dropped and picked up cars in New Britain, Plainville, Westfield and Holyoke. 

NY-2 was in New Britain around 4.30 AM, and Holyoke about 7.45 AM, so perhaps some will turn up there. It handled perishables for Meriden and New Britain, along with New Britain Merchandise (L.C.L) traffic. It won't be seen on the layout, but leaves a cut of cars at Whiting Street Yard that is waiting for the switching crews when they come on duty.

NY-4 was in New Britain around 8.20 or 9.20 AM.

YN-3 was in New Britain around 2.50 to 3.30 PM, depending on the year. As such, it's the most photographed of these trains.

YN-1 typically left Holyoke around 6.20 PM and was in New Britain around 8.40 - 9.00 PM. This is after the end of the session, but the crews will block at cut of cars to be picked up overnight.

Although listed a symbol freight, NY-4/YN-3 operated like a local freight, servicing Cremo Brewery, which is in New Britain, but on the Springfield Line, along with Berlin and Avon to Southwick, which are all towns north of Farmington on the Canal Line. In years where HDX-5 (the New Hartford local, later NX-25) wasn't running, then these trains also served Farmington, Unionville, Collinsville and New Hartford.

I have quite a few photos of  YN-3 under steam, starting with  I-4 1367 and NE class caboose C-139 at Berlin station on September 8, 1945. It may have been stopped to get orders, or it might have been heading to Cremo Brewery which was just north on the Springfield line.

Here it is switching cars on the wye:

And heading back to Cedar Hill in Kensington, just south of the last photo after reassembling the train.

Photographer unknown, but probably Kent Cochrane.

An I-4 would have been an unusual locomotive on this train at the time. As the orders show, it was usually a J-1 such as 3008, seen here in Plainville on YN-3 (date and photographer unknown):

Or 3010, seen at the eastern portal of the Terryville tunnel on YN-3:

And at the western portal on NY-4:

Date and photographer unknown, but c1944-5, probably Kent Cochrane.

On Sundays they were combined into a single train, which sometimes required double-heading to get up the grade in Berlin, such as on this June 1940 day:

These were the first freights running through New Britain that was dieselized, although they would probably be more properly called Canal Line jobs rather than Highland Line, as that's where they did most of their work. These trains came up the Springfield Line, heading toward Plainville through New Britain via the wye in Berlin. due to the Canal Line south of Plainville being single tracked, lighter rail, and with clearance issues in North Haven.

Locomotives 0605 and 0606 were normally assigned the NY/YN freights from 1945 until they were replaced by DERS-2b (Also RS-2) locomotives, numbers 0502 and 0503. In both cases these were specific assignments since they were the only locomotives of their class at the time with Springfield Line ATS installed, which was required for the portion of the run from Berlin to Cedar Hill.

Here 0606 is on YN-3 in Plainville on July 7, 1947. Note the NE-5 class caboose (I can't read the number, unfortunately):

This looks like the same day:

Here YN-3 is at Cook's Quarry in Plainville, just about to enter New Britain, date unknown:

About a mile down the tracks is Wooster St in New Britain where Kent caught NY-4 on Christmas Day 1947:

Although the information I have so far indicates 0605 and 0606 were assigned to the Holyoke freights, both the train order and a couple of photos indicate that 0604 was sometimes used as well. This photo was taken at New Britain Station/Yard.

0604 had dual (Shoreline and Springfield line) Cab Signals, and at the time may have been the only other DEY-5 (Alco S-2) equipped for Springfield Line service, although 0616 had dual cab signals by 1950.

On this snowy day in January, 1947 we see 0604 with YN-3 on the wye in Plainville (you can see the train curving to the right). On the eastbound main is I-1 1001(?) with train #157 on its way to New Britain. On the westbound main in the distance you can see the caboose of HDX-4 on its way back to Waterbury. 

Unless otherwise noted, these are all YN-3, heading back to Cedar Hill, c1946-7, by Kent Cochrane.

On the Layout
NY-4 drops off a cut of cars at Whiting Street yard about 30-45 minute into the session using the 4:1 fast clock. YN-3 will come back to pick up cars about 2 hours and 15 minutes later. 

NY-4/YN-3 runs daily until it was dropped in 1952. It looks like 0606 would run through at least the end of 1947, but from 1948-1951 it will be DERS-2b (Alco RS-2) 0502. The RS-2s seem to be among the most elusive locomotives on the NH, with few photographs in service. I have none on the YN-3 trains, despite the dozen or so prior to their assignment I've shared here. 

NY-2/YN-1 continued until the end of the New Haven of course, as the train orders show. Starting in 1952 the RS-2s were replaced with DERS-2c (RS-3) locomotives. So through the 9 years I'm modeling, they went from steam and through 3 progressively heavier classes of diesels as they were delivered.

The RS-3s replaced by a pair of DER-2a (FA-1) locomotives in 1956, which is the first move to an older class of locomotives in this era. They were still servicing the trains in 1957, the latest Engine Assignments I have.

As noted in the last post, the train orders from '68 have a DERS-5 (DL-701) or DERS-4 (GP-9).  

In my case, I'm working on 0502 for 1948-1951 ops sessions, and I'll also need to get 0606 for 1946-7 sessions. Work continues on the RS-2s (I'm also still doing 0503 too, since Life-Like used that as one of the two road numbers):

I need to finish the frame and some underbody details and install the decoders. Oh, and a little detail coming soon from my buddy Jim Lincoln...

I need them for the S-2s, RS-1s, RS-2s, and RS-3s.

Thursday, June 25, 2020

Operations - Train Orders

I just got a small stack of NH train orders which provides some insight to the era. All of them at Berlin, CT. 

Order No. 162
Dec 21, 1942
To C+E Eng 3013 at Berlin
Eng 3013 run extra New Britain to Plainville
Complete 1.06 AM

Order No. 20
Dec 21, 1942
To C+E 3010 at Berlin
Eng 3010 run extra Berlin to North Haven
Complete 7.53 PM

Order No. 22
Dec 21, 1942
To C+E 3011 at Berlin
Eng 3011 run extra Berlin to North Haven
Complete 8.34 PM


Order No. 111
Dec 28, 1942
To C+E Eng 356 and 3010 at Berlin
Eng 356 run extra New Britain to Westfield
Complete 3.29 AM

Order No. 112
Dec 28, 1942
To C+E Eng 3011 at Berlin
Eng 3011 run extra New Britain to Plainville
Complete 6.19 AM

Engine number 3010 is addressed in the first order, presumably they received their own orders as well. Engine 356 is a K-1 mogul, so I doubt it's double-heading with 3010, but it also seems odd that a Mogul would be working at 3.29 AM. 


Order No. 108
Dec 29, 1942
To C+E Eng 3008 at Berlin
Eng 3008 run extra New Britain to Westfield
Complete 3.53 AM

Order No. 111
Dec 29, 1942
To C+E Eng 3010 at Berlin
Eng 3010 run extra New Britain to Plainville
Complete 6.11 AM

Order No. 35
Dec 29, 1942
To C+E Eng 3012 at Berlin
Eng 3012 run extra Berlin to North Haven
Complete 4.48 PM

Order No. 38
Dec 29, 1942
To C+E Eng 3008 at Berlin
Eng 3008 run extra Berlin to North Haven
Complete 7.32 PM


Order No. 28
Hartford February 1, 1943
To C+E Eng 3013 West at Berlin
X C+E Eng 3008 West
Restricted speed over Cherry Street crossing
Third crossing West of Meriden Station account gates broken
Complete 6.31 PM

Order No. 30
Hartford February 1, 1943
To C+E Eng 3008 at Berlin Conn
Eng 3008 run extra Berlin to North Haven
Complete 6.29 PM

All of these are on Cedar Hill to Holyoke (NY-x) or the reverse (YN-x) with J-1 Mikado locomotives as power. The Form 19 form number is From 1314-1.
The Superintendent is WHB
The Train Dispatcher is (illegible), EWR, HFR (might be HSR) or RHC

3008 and 3010 are on more trains, obviously with a very small sample size, but if/when I get to modeling the J-1s, these may be the two I build.


One oddity is the train order numbers themselves. According to Rule 203 "The orders must be numbered consecutively each day, beginning at midnight." This is the rule in every NH Book of Rules I have, from 1907 to 1956.

But you'll note that in multiple examples above that it appears that's not followed:

Dec 21, 1942
1.06 AM - Order No 162
7.53 PM - Order No 20

Dec 28, 1942
3.29 AM - Order No 111
6.19 AM - Order No 112

Dec 29, 1942
3.53 AM - Order No 108
6.11 AM - Order No 111
4.48 PM - Order No 35
7.22 PM - Order No 38

In all cases it appears that the sequence restarts at some point in the morning. Perhaps when the first trick starts at 8.00 AM?

Another question that is raised is that all of these orders are listed At Berlin. But Berlin it not listed in the Employee Timetable under "Day Train Order, Block and Interlocking Stations Open" which would imply it is not a Day Train Order, Block or Interlocking station.


Order No. 36
May 4, 1946
To C+E Eng 0604 at Berlin
Eng 0604 run extra Berlin to North Haven
Complete 7.56 PM

This is also for the YN-x train but by now it's DEY-5 (S-2) 0604. It's nice to see confirmation that these locomotives are handling this job in May of '46. Further proof that if I want to run all steam I would need to go back to 1945.

The Form 19 is now Form 1314-2, the difference being that the the header no longer includes "The New York Connecting Railroad Company"

Superintendent is still WHB, the operator is EWR again.


Train Order No. 412
Dec 23, 1968
To C+E Engine 1400 at Berlin
Engine 1400 run extra New Britain to Berlin
Complete 10.50 AM

This is a jump of more than 20 years, about a week before the New Haven is folded into the Penn Central. The order numbers are much higher because the Hartford Division had been eliminated in the early '50s, so these are now New Haven Division orders covering a larger territory, so more total orders for the day. 

This is a DERS-5 (Alco DL-701) and is most likely still the Holyoke freight.

The Superintendent is now DGW (could be DGM), and the Train Dispatcher is HEL.


Clearance Form A
9.02 AM Dec 24, 1968
To C&E Extra 1228 East at Berlin
I have one orders for your train.
No 408
Block Clear

Train Order No. 408
Dec 24, 1968
To C+E Engine 1228 at Berlin
Engine 1228 run extra New Britain to Plainville
Complete 9.01 AM

This is the only one with a Clearance Form A attached. It verifies that Order No. 408 was the only order for the train at Berlin. It's a DERS-4 (GP-9).

If orders still started with Order No. 1 at 8.00 AM, then more than 400 had been written in the first hour of the day! It's now Form 1314-3, with the major change being the elimination of the line:


Train Order No. 420
Dec 26, 1968
C+E Engine 1208 at Berlin
Engine 1208 run extra New Britain to Plainville
Complete 10.12 AM

Another DERS-4 (GP-9). Like several of these, it gives orders only as far as Plainville, where they would have received orders to continue towards Westfield. Some of the earlier orders go all the way to Westfield. 

The Superintendent for these last two is still DGW, but the Dispatcher is EWR again, covering 26 years.

Thursday, June 18, 2020

Operations - Produce Reefer Traffic

With the Swift and Armour distribution plants in the center of town I know I need meat reefers. But do I need produce reefers? Especially since most sessions won't have Maybrook-Hartford freights where they would be on through trains. And if so, which ones?

I suspect that a lot of the region received produce by truck, serviced by the large Produce Terminal in Hartford. Since refrigerated trucks aren't common in this era, the range of service is probably somewhat limited though. Today that's about 10 miles and a 20-minute drive to East Main St, New Britain where Miner, Read & Tullock and Cohen William, two grocery wholesalers, are located. Both are served by the railroad, though. Would they receive reefers?

I have plenty of evidence that a box car could be loaded for multiple destinations, but I think that's also unlikely in regards to reefers because they would need to be sent to Hartford for re-icing. Since reefers were frequently pre-cooled before icing, opening a car for even an hour for a partial unload is probably not practical. Which means I need to determine whether full reefers would be received in New Britain.

With a population of ~75,000 in my era, combined with the fact that these two industries could also serve neighboring towns, I think the answer is yes. They would receive full carloads of produce reefers. 

Which Reefers?
The reason is that the railroads were very selective in loading reefers. While the car service rules prevented roads from loading home road cars in preference to foreign cars, reefers were generally owned by subsidiaries. The New Haven was part owner of FGEX and companies, and their loading rules specified:

"FGE controlled cars (FGEX, BREX, FWDX, WFEX, CX, FHIX, WHIX, BHIX, FOBX) must be used for all refrigerator car loading. Loading of all other private line cars of any type is prohibited except as authorized by car owner, lessee, or this office."

From NYNH&H Transportation Department Form TD-12-G: General Car Order And Home Route Instructions ... Issued December 15, 1956.

The SP and UP had a similar rule for PFE cars, as did ATSF for SFRD cars. 

Since there are no industries in New Britain loading reefers, the cars I'll need will be dependent upon what is being received. My modeling month is November, I can further narrow down the options by looking at commodities are shipping in November.

Will I need that many FGEX cars, or will it lean toward the massive PFE and SFRD fleets?

Looking at the Pacific Fruit Express book, combined with the 1% waybill study, I can identify commodities that would be shipping in November, and whether those were part of the 1% waybill study from AZ, CA, OR, or TX, the states that PFE served.

Another great resource is www.pickyourown.org which has harvest calendars for every State in addition to Canadian Provinces, such as this one for California.

These specific commodities match both those criteria:
  • Cabbage (AZ)
  • Celery (CA) - more celery comes to CT from Florida, but the season doesn't start until December
  • Citrus Fruits NOS (CA lemons)
  • Grapefruit (AZ)
  • Grapes (CA)
  • Lettuce (CA)
  • Oranges (AZ, CA)
  • Pears (CA, OR)
  • Potatoes, not Sweet (CA) - the majority come from ME, but not in November
  • Tomatoes (TX)

In addition, there is a category of Fresh Vegetables for many commodities not called out individually. These could include:
  • Anise (CA)
  • Artichokes (CA)
  • Asparagus (CA)
  • Beets (AZ, CA, TX)
  • Broccoli (AZ, CA, TX)
  • Brussels Sprouts (CA)
  • Carrots (AZ, CA)
  • Cauliflower (CA)
  • Cucumbers (CA)
  • Eggplant (AZ)
  • Garlic (CA)
  • Leeks (CA)
  • Onions (OR)
  • Peas, Green (CA)
  • Peppers (CA)
  • Pumpkins (AZ, TX)
  • Radishes (CA)
  • Shallots (AZ)
  • Spinach (AZ, CA, TX)
  • Squash, Winter (AZ)
  • Turnips (CA)

These could all be in PFE reefers, and some may be appropriate for SFRD as well. I'll need to do some more research regarding producers and the towns served by SFRD.

That covers PFE and to some degree SFRD, but what about other produce reefers?

ART, FGEX, MDT, etc.
We can look at the other states that shipped enough produce to CT to be captured in the 1% Waybill Study:
  • Apples, Fresh (WA)
  • Bananas, Fresh (FL, NY, Canada)
  • Oranges, Grapefruit (FL)
  • Peaches, Fresh (GA, SC, VA)
  • Cabbage (FL, NY)
  • Vegetables, Fresh (FL, MS, NM, TN, Canada)
    • Beets (NM)
    • Broccoli (FL, MS, NM)
    • Brussels Sprouts (TN, Canada)
    • Carrots (MS, TN, Canada)
    • Cauliflower (MS)
    • Pumpkins (NM)
    • Spinach (MS, NM)
    • Turnips (MS) 
New Mexico would be SFRD territory.

The FGEX consortium serves Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and Washington among other States. So these cars are probably less common than PFE, but about the same, or perhaps a bit more common than SFRD.

New York is served by MDT,  as well as Alabama, Mississipi, and Tennessee via the GM&O. 

Canada is served by Canadian National and Canadian Pacific. 

The Missouri Pacific and Wabash owned ART, and according to an article by Ed Hawkins they served Southern Texas like the Rio Grande Valley and Uvalde among other areas. So some of the Texas traffic could be in ART reefers.

Obviously, loading isn't 100% to the rules, and even though the 1% waybill study shows what were the most common originating points for such loads, there were undoubtedly there were others. 

It appears that PFE, FGEX and SFRD should be the most common produce reefers in New Britain in November, in that order.

I currently have 10 PFE cars (in several paint schemes since they were changing during the years I'm modeling), all Intermountain.

I have an Intermountain and Athearn SFRD reefer, but the Athearn is a 50-footer. Resin Car Works released a resin kit of other SFRD classes, which replaces the need for earlier versions released by Sunshine, although the RCW cars are currently out of production too.

I also have an NWX (Branchline, now Atlas), and two ART (Intermountain), which should be sufficient, plus the CP 8-hatch reefer that we released at True Line Trains.

But it appears I will need a decent number of FGEX consortium cars, so I'll continue with my plans as detailed in my earlier posts here and here.

Accurate MDT reefers are also hard to find, although I have a Sunshine kit or two to build.

This doesn't cover use of such reefers in ventilation service, or service other than produce, but it forms the foundation of a roster of produce reefers.

Thursday, June 11, 2020

Operations - Commodities - Newsprint

The June 1945 Along the Line has an article called "We play a part in FREEDOM OF THE PRESS"  which largely covers the movement of newsprint on the New Haven. It's an interesting read, and you can find it in the UCONN collection of Along the Line.

It reports that in 1944 the NH received 8.501 cars of newsprint, with 4,796 of those delivered online.

The newsprint "came from 11 different places in Maine, two in New Hampshire, one in Vermont, one in New Brunswick, and six in Quebec. They were delivered to practically every city in our territory."

In my case, the New Britain Herald is a daily newspaper that would receive newsprint via the bulk tracks, or possibly the freight house, since they aren't served directly by rail. I'm always looking to identify loads to deliver to the bulk tracks, so this is a great place to start.

So poking around online I found a 1950 Congressional Hearing regarding antitrust investigations into the newsprint and paper industries. The copy at Hathitrust.org is more complete, with the appendices. Of course, this is fascinating, but a very long read, and it's tough to find the sort of information I'm looking for. But there was some testimony from John A. Guthrie who apparently wrote a book on the subject prior to being called for this hearing. It's a little pricy on Amazon for my purposes...

His testimony indicated that by 1949 the number of mills in North America are:
Quebec - 19
Ontario - 10
Newfoundland  - 2
British Columbia - 2
Manitoba - 1
Nova Scotia - 1
New Brunswick - 1
United States
Alabama - 1
Indiana - 1
Maine - 4
Oregon - 2
Texas - 1
Washington - 3

He also describes the general movement of newsprint:
61% of Canadian newsprint moved by rail, 37% by water, 2% by rail and water, although water traffic is only during summer (Great Lakes and ocean).
The largest shipments by water from American mills is Oregon and Washington.

Newsprint from Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Maine is shipped to New England and Middle and South Atlantic States, and some to the Southern States.

Newsprint from Washington, Oregon, and British Columbia is shipped to Mountain and Pacific States.

Newsprint from Alabama and Texas is shipped to Southern States and Mexico.

Some of the most interesting information is that many of the mills are majority owned by certain publishers.
  • Spruce Falls Paper Co in Kapuskasing Ontario is owned by the New York Times
  • Ontario Paper Co and Quebec North Short Paper Co in Baie Comeau Quebec is owned by Tribune Co, publishers of the Chicago Tribune, and also for the New York Daily News.
  • Pejepscot Paper Co in Brunswick Maine is owned by Hearst Publications
  • St. Croix Paper Co. in Maine is owned by the New York Daily News

Most of the US mills are majority owned by a publisher or group of publishers and provides some very useful information for populating waybills.

This inquiry may have been brought about in part due to a newsprint shortage following WWII as described in this paper and it goes into more detail about some of the arrangements with various mills and publishers.


Looking at the average number of cars to CT from the 1% waybill study shows that an average of just a bit more than 3,000 cars were delivered annually 1950-54. 80% of those from Canada, and 20% from Maine.


I found another book of House Records, that includes a great table of newsprint production in 1950, though, and combined with John's testimony, can narrow down the options a bit more.

By my era, starting only two years after the Along the Line article, there are no mills in New Hampshire or Vermont.

The largest, and only mill in Maine not owned by a publishing company, is the Great Northern Paper Co, with mills in Millinocket and East Millinocket, both served by the Bangor & Aroostook. 

For Canadian mills, the Canadian International Paper Co in Quebec is the largest, shipping out of six mills
  • Cap Madeleine (CP)
  • Gatinean (CP)
  • Grand Mere (CN, CP?)
  • Port Alfred (CN)
  • Shawinigan Falls (CN)
  • Three Rivers (CN, GT?)

The second largest is the New Brunswick International Paper Co, in Dalhousie New Brunswick on the CN.

From the largest to smallest producers, the others that are not are not affiliated with a publisher are:
  • Price Bros (Kenogami and Riverbend) (RS)
  • Anglo-Canadian Pulp & Paper Co (Quebec)(CN, CP, GT?)
  • St Lawrence Paper Mills Co (Three Rivers)(CP)
  • James Maclaren Co (Buckingham)(CP)
  • Abitibi Power & Paper Co (Beaupre)(QRL&P)
  • Lake St John Power & Paper Co (Dolbeau)(CN)
  • Donnacona Paper Co (Donnacona)(CN)
  • Donohue Bros (Clermont) (CN)
  • Eddy Paper Co (Hull)(CP)
  • Richmond Pulp & Paper Co (Bromptville)(CN)
  • St Raymond Paper (St Raymond)(CN)

RS - Roberville Saguenay Railway, a short line owned at this time by Alcan, an aluminum manufacturing company. It served local industries, including the Price Bros mills, and had a connection with the CN.

QRL&P - Quebec Railway Light & Power, a short line east of Quebec, taken over by CN in 1951.

It's unclear what railroad(s) serve some of the mills based on what little information I have.


This gives me all I'll need to generate waybills for carloads of newsprint and I learned a lot in the process too! Time to get back to some modeling - I have been working on a number of projects and just need to make some time to write the posts. More soon!

Friday, May 29, 2020

New Haven Steam Clinic and Handouts

If you're on Facebook, you can go to the NMRA Group there's another day of virtual clinics.

You can also access it on YouTube if you're not on Facebook.

Clinics run from 6:00 am to 5:00 pm eastern, and I'll be on at 1:00 PM eastern, presenting a clinic Chris Adams and I have done in the past, with assistance from Charlie Dunn and John Pryke:

New Haven Steam: A Detail Study for Modelers Handouts
I've got several handouts available for the clinic.

The main handout is the clinic, minus most of the pictures, also includes:
A list of resources
A list of available models in HO, N, and O scale
A list of HO scale detail parts for NH steam

There is also an NHRHTA document by John Pryke about modeling an R-1-b. While the base model is an Akane brass locomotive, any USRA Light Mountain can be used as the starting point.

There's a list or modifications and parts that Ted Culotta recommended for modifying a Bachmann USRA Light Mountain into an R-1-b.

There's a 1947 Steam Roster covering the classes in the presentation for selecting road numbers for modeling.

You can access all of them here.


I'm excited about the format, because it's mostly a slideshow of, well, New Haven Steam. When we prepared the clinic, the intention was to provide a picture of as many road numbers as possible. Since this will be available on Facebook/YouTube going forward, you can go back to it and pause it on any photo you'd like for future reference.

In a few weeks I'll be doing the first of several clinics on Operations as well. 

Come check out the clinic, and I hope you enjoy all of the clinics today!

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Steam Switchers in New Britain - The Later Years


I have photos of three different T-2 class switchers in New Britain. Although I don't have confirmation for several of the photos, I believe all of these are Kent Cochrane photos, with some in the early '40s. These photos are the primary source for determining which locomotives were assigned to New Britain, absent 1946 or 1947 Engine Assignment or other company records.

T-2-a 2327 on New Britain engine servicing pits, date and photographer unknown
Note the main rod is connected to the second driver, the spotting feature for a T-2-a.

T-2-a 2327 working Whiting St Yard, date and photographer unknown

T-2-b 2435 working New Britain Yard, c1940, photographer unknown
Note the main rod is connected to the third driver, identifying it as a T-2-b.
I believe that is a W-2-d class tender with the extended coal bunker.

Both of these locomotives were gone by my era.
  • T-2-a 2327 was retired February 2, 1945
  • T-2-b 2435 was condemned 8/15/44, which is too bad because it has the extended coal bunker found on the Overland brass model of these locomotives. Incidentally, while they thoughtfully made the coal bunker extension a separate part, there isn't any consideration for adding the original coal bunker sides so it's not very usable without modification in any other consideration.

T-2-b 2446 at Russell and Erwin
September 7, 1946, Kent Cochrane photo

T-2-b at Russell & Erwin (Washington Street Crossing)
c1946, Kent Cochrane photo

T-2-b 2446 at New Britain engine servicing
August 1948, Kent Cochrane photo

On the back of the second photo is a handwritten note by Tom McNamara:

New Britain switcher at NB Engine Storage 8/48
Diesel switchers (0800s) had been working in NB (3/47)
for over a year at the time of this photo and 2446's career was over.

Listed in April 20, 1948 Utilization of Locomotives report as assigned to East Hartford, but dumped. This could conceivably confirm Thomas McNamara's notes on the back of the photo from '48. It was condemned/sold on 10/14/49.

Only one other T-2-b was assigned to East Hartford on that report, 2353. I have no information as to when this locomotive was condemned, but could this be the second New Britain switcher when the DEY-4 (44-tonners) were assigned in March 1947?

For now I don't know, but I can narrow down the possibilities.

An April 20, 1948 Utilization of Locomotives report gives the disposition of those remaining at that time. I've also noted any additional information I have for these specific locomotives.
2305 - 4/20/48 Worcester Shop Switcher, 9/25/49 Van Nest Shop Switcher
2309 - 4/20/48 Boston Shop Switcher (Southampton St)
2339 - 4/20/48 Cedar Hill Enginehouse Switcher, 3/22/47 Cedar Hill (photo)
2353 - 4/20/48 East Hartford, light repairs
2393 - 3/31/50, 9/47 stored in Boston (photo, stack capped), 4/20/48 New Bedford, boiler wash
2398 - 10/13/50, 8/47 Hartford (photo), 8/31/47 Providence (photo), 4/20/48 Worcester, dumped, 6/20/48 Fan Trip (photo)
2403 - 9/12/49, 4/20/48 Worcester, steam heat
2446 - 10/14/49, 4/20/48 East Hartford, dumped, 12/48 Readville (photo, under steam), 4/24/49 Readville, dumped save fuel, 7/2/49 Readville (photo, stripped down)
2466 - 10/10/49, 4/20/48 Readville Shop Switcher, 4/24/49 Readville, dumped save fuel

However, I doubt it was moved to one of the other locations listed in the 1948 report, so I need to see what I can find for the other locomotives regarding their assignments or photos. The possible exception is 2353 which is the only other one assigned to the Hartford Division at that time.

There are a handful of T-2s that were condemned between March 1947 and April 20, 1948:

2312 - 2/10/48
2319 - 3/18/47
2326 - 6/10/47
2378 - 3/18/47
2383 - 11/29/47
2411 - 7/22/47
2416 - 6/10/47
2454 - 6/27/47
2457 - 11/29/47

I think it's unlikely that either 2319 or 2378 was the other New Britain locomotive. First, because both were condemned on the same date. Second, because I think that the process of being removed from service and being condemned took a period of time. How long? I'm not sure, nor was it necessarily the same for all. But 2446 was removed from service in March '47, sat in New Britain until at least August '48, and ended up in Readville by April '49 before being condemned in October of '49, or more than two years.

For now, 1946 ops sessions are some time away, giving me time to look for additional information to narrow down the list. Of course, it's quite possible that the specific locomotive number has been lost. But with luck additional records or photos will turn up.